General Antoine Alexandre HanicqueArtillery officer who served throughout the Revolution and early empire
Born: May 27, 1748
Place of Birth: Paris, Paris, France
Legion of Honor: Commander
Imperial Nobility: Baron
Died: February 28, 1821
Place of Death: Paris, France
Arc de Triomphe: HANICQUE on the north pillar
Joining the artillery at age sixteen in 1765, Antoine Alexandre Hanicque was commissioned as a lieutenant in the 2nd Artillery Regiment of Besançon in 1769. In 1782 he was promoted to capitaine and in 1792 he joined the horse artillery and served at the Battle of Valmy under Stengel. Two months later Hanicque served at the Battle of Liége. In March of 1793 he distinguished himself at the combat on the Roër and he was promoted to chef de bataillon a week later, and then at the end of the year he began to serve in the Vendée. In February of 1795 Hanicque became chief of staff of artillery of the Western Pyrenees and the next month he was promoted to chef de brigade of the 2nd Light Artillery. He next served in the Army of the Interior, the Army of the Rhine, and the Army of the Sambre and Meuse. In 1797 Hanicque was named director of artillery at Lille and then later the same position at Brussels. From 1798 to 1801 he served with the Army of Mainz, the Army of the Danube, the Army of Switzerland, and the Army of the Rhine. Hanicque became chief of staff of the artillery of the Army of the Rhine in April of 1800 and the following month he distinguished himself at Biberach.
In 1803 Hanicque served with the Army of the Coasts of the Ocean and he was promoted to général de brigade. For a brief time he commanded the artillery school at Grenoble before returning to the Army of the Coasts of the Ocean. Hanicque was named a Commander of the Legion of Honor in June of 1804 and when war broke out in 1805 he took command of the artillery of Marshal Murat's cavalry reserve. After the conclusion of the campaign of 1805, he took command of the artillery of IV Corps and then in September of 1806 he took command of the artillery of Marshal Davout's III Corps. Serving against Prussia that year, Hanicque fought at Tsarnowo in December. In March of 1807 he was promoted to général de division and named inspector general of artillery.
In July of 1808 Hanicque was named a Baron of the Empire and then in November of 1809 he took command of the artillery of the Army of Germany. He retired from the army in March of 1810.
Updated August 2018
© Nathan D. Jensen